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Watering your lawn is something that, if not done properly, can do more damage than good. There are three basic concepts that you need to understand in order to irrigate properly.
First is timing. If you water your lawn on a regular, clock-work basis, be prepared to mow just as robotically and scout for pests that much more frequently as well. Watering when your grass needs it encourages drought resistance.
Second is the depth of moisture penetration. You need to moisten (not drench!) the soil to the bottom of the root zone. Between 4 and 6 inches, depending on grass type. In typical soils, one inch of water applied to the lawn will result in moistening the soil down 4-5 inches. Heavier soils will require more water, with some time with the water off to allow percolation. Sandier soils will require less water, but will need it more frequently.